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Street Children With Disabilities: Poor Health and Violence

young boy looking scared, hiding between some wooden planks.

Impacts Of Living with Disability As A Street Child: Poor Health & Violence

Living on the street

Some street children are forced to live and fend for themselves with no adults to care for them. This can be due to illness, exclusion or humanitarian crisis (1). For example, the HIV pandemic and ongoing war in many countries has left many children orphaned (1). This has forced more on to the streets (1). Others still have families to return home to at night but work on the street to contribute to their family’s income (2). Regardless, street children are more likely to be affected by disability due to poor health and violence (1). Disability also makes children more vulnerable to illness and violence. Many children with pre-existing disabilities often end up on the street due to discrimination and rejection from their communities (3).

Poor health in street children

Children living with disability are at greater risk of illness, which can be partly due to difficulties in accessing health services (4). For example, children with disabilities commonly receive fewer essential vaccinations and basic healthcare (5). Similarly, the poor health and illness suffered by street children is often as a result of poverty and limited access to healthcare (7). This suggests that also living with disability exacerbates the poor health experienced by street children. Almost all street children experience health problems, relating to growth, violence and infectious diseases along with mental illness and substance abuse (8). In addition, a study carried out in Alexandria in Egypt found that 83% of street children were malnourished (9). This is not surprising, but it highlights how the health of almost all street children can be affected by poverty.

Street children also suffer from disproportionately high levels of HIV / AIDs, overlapping with other groups affected by HIV, including intravenous drug users (10;11). As a result, there have been specific targets of HIV/AIDs interventions towards street children. While these have been effective, further progress will better protect street children and those with disability from illness. Railway Children is an organisation which works at three levels to better support all street children (12). They work at street level and community level to work with people directly and also at government level to influence policy for better protection of street children (12).

Abuse and violence in street children

Both street children and children with disabilities are more susceptible to violence (5). Studies carried out in Cairo and Alexandria in Egypt found that as much as 93% of street children had experienced harassment and abuse (11). Most of this abuse was by police and other street children (11). In addition, research shows that children with disabilities are as much as three times more at risk of violence than non-disabled children (5). Exclusion and sometimes a lack of care can leave them more vulnerable to harm, where they viewed as ‘easier targets’ (5).

Improving the health of street children with disabilities

It has been suggested that the creation of safe shelters could help improve poor health (8). These would be very helpful in providing safe spaces for street children and those with disability, which would limit their risk of harm (8).  However, beyond support by charities and other non-governmental organisations, there is a need to introduce new policies which better protect street children (8).

Chance for Childhood works with KUAP to support street children and street children with disabilities, in Kisumu, Kenya (13). Unfortunately, COVID-19 forced them to pause much of their work. In response, remote counselling had been arranged for some of the children (13). However, KUAP has also continued to supply food packages to 60 local families with children struggling with dysphagia. This programme has been essential in helping to improve the health of street children and those with disabilities. KUAP also tries to reunite street children with their families. (13).

There are some positive steps in place to improve the poor health of street children with disabilities. However, more help is urgently needed, which is why here at Poverty Child we are dedicated to supporting street-connected children. We would be grateful for any donations. If you wish please donate to Poverty Child.


References

1.     Child S. The Facts about Street Children | Consortium for Street Children [Internet]. Consortium for Street Children. 2021 [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.streetchildren.org/about-street-children/

2.     On International Day of Persons with Disabilities we Advocate for Inclusive Education — Street Child [Internet]. Street Child. 2019 [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.co.uk/blog/2019/12/4/on-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities-we-advocate-inclusive-education

3.     Our work / Toybox [Internet]. Toybox.org.uk. [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://toybox.org.uk/our-work

4.     Kuper H, Monteath-van Dok A, Wing K, Danquah L, Evans J, Zuurmond M et al. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2014 [cited 24 August 2021];9(9):e107300. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159292/

5.     World Health Organization & United Nations Children’s Fund (‎UNICEF)‎. (‎2012)‎. Early childhood development and disability: a discussion paper. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/75355

6.     Panter‐brick C. Homelessness, poverty, and risks to health: beyond at risk categorizations of street children1. Children’s Geographies [Internet]. 2004 [cited 25 August 2021];2(1):83-94. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1473328032000168787?casa_token=IrddfS6UXfoAAAAA%3AR_P9f01XM_z57spnmwwr9dOShWSZ33cpaFX98fy6UXBNkmOpVXvdkhqupQhPAM-m_PAhOhpH84VVlA

7.     Cumber S, Tsoka-Gwegweni J. The health profile of street children in Africa: a literature review. Journal of Public Health in Africa [Internet]. 2015 [cited 25 August 2021];. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5349275/

8.     Cumber S, Tsoka-Gwegweni J. The health profile of street children in Africa: a literature review. Journal of Public Health in Africa [Internet]. 2015 [cited 25 August 2021];. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5349275/

9.     Salem E, el-latif F. Sociodemographic characteristics of street children in Alexandria. East Mediterranean Health Journal [Internet]. 2002 [cited 25 August 2021];8(1):64-73. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15330562/

10.  Marshall B, Kerr T, Shoveller J, Montaner J, Wood E. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2009 [cited 25 August 2021];9(1). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19134203/

11.  Nada K, Suliman E. Violence, abuse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behaviors in street children of Greater Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt. AIDS [Internet]. 2010 [cited 25 August 2021];24(Suppl 2):S39-S44. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2010/07002/Violence,_abuse,_alcohol_and_drug_use,_and_sexual.5.aspx

12.  Fighting for Street Children [Internet]. Railwaychildren.org.uk. [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.railwaychildren.org.uk/

13.   How we’re supporting vulnerable children during Coronavirus | Chance for Childhood – Children’s charity [Internet]. Chance for Childhood. 2020 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://chanceforchildhood.org/latest-news/how-were-supporting-vulnerable-children-during-coronavirus/

 

Street Children With Disabilities: Education

Picture of a classroom in a developing country, filled with students

Impacts of living with disability as a street child

School as a street child

Street children are rarely enrolled in formal education. They are often excluded from normal classrooms, which can make learning more difficult.  Instead, those who are in education tend to use local programmes with teaching that is better tailored to the needs of street children (1). This includes time for children to work to support themselves or their families (1). These programmes have been vital in supporting street children as education is often essential for them to survive extreme poverty (2).

Regardless of the school system, it is common for street children to face many difficulties with education due to poverty, discrimination and difficulty getting to school. Like street children, it is also common for children living with disability to experience discrimination, bullying and isolation while at school (1;3). Due to the discrimination already experienced by street children in education, it is easy to imagine how street children also impacted by disability can find education even more challenging, whether in formal education or in street-connected programmes. Therefore, street children living with disability often experience even more hardship at school (4).

Lack of resources for street children with disabilities

Particularly in low-income areas, school budgets cannot afford for funds to be directed towards the needs of special needs children (3). For example, classrooms are often too noisy for children with hearing difficulties to learn and those with visual and physical disabilities cannot be given the support they need for them to manage their impairments at school (2). Therefore, programmes aiming to improve the inclusion of street children in education, whether that be formal or those tailored for street children, are very important. Education is suggested to be the single most effective way for a street child to thrive (2). Furthermore, if on their own, being out of school can force a street child to fend for themselves all day and all night.

What can be done to help

  1. Mobile schools and financial help

Some projects aim to provide a school format for street children which allows time for work, due to many also needing to work on the streets to support themselves and potentially their families (1). For example, the Mobile School NPO created by the CSC Network helps to support street children by delivering teaching in remote areas. This allows them to learn in an open and accessible environment.

Another benefit of programmes like the Mobile School is that they are scalable. In addition, Street Child’s ‘Family Business for Education’ model has made progress in tackling the social and financial barriers experienced by street children and children with disabilities (5). Through this programme, families receive training in developing and saving a stable income, which helps them send their children to school. ‘Family Business for Education’ has been extremely successful by helping more than 50,000 children attend school. Education is vital in helping street children move out of poverty, allowing them to live healthier adult lives (1).

  1. Promoting inclusion of street children with disabilities

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are continuing to develop interventions which are inclusive of street children. Street Child is keen to make education more accessible and inclusive for those living with disability (5). They are continuing to train teachers to promote an inclusive environment which is supportive of their students (5)

Similarly, Chance for Childhood has worked with partners via Comic Relief in Western Kenya, to improve the quality and accessibility of education for street children with additional needs (6). This project is called ‘LEAP’ and one of its main objectives is to promote the inclusion of street children with disabilities. ‘LEAP’ workers believe that children living with disability should be included in formal school, rather than enrolled into separate education (6). They feel that this inclusion is essential to tackle the negative attitudes towards street children and disability. It can be challenging to bring these children back into mainstream education as they can have specific needs. However, with particular support it is possible (6).

  1. Specialist education programmes

The view of ‘LEAP’ is important. However, not all projects aim to re-introduce street children to mainstream education. It is sometimes necessary for street children to have access to an alternative school format as some feel that formal education is not a priority (1;7). Therefore, it is important to communicate with children about their needs. Tailored programmes may suit some street children better. However, further projects which focus on the needs of street children with disabilities as an individual group are needed within schools. If we continue to tackle the stigma surrounding these children, we can hope to improve their education, whether in tailored education or formal school (1;7).

 


References

  1. Clark J. Realising street children’s right to education | CSC [Internet]. Consortium for Street Children. 2019 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.streetchildren.org/news-and-updates/realising-street-childrens-right-to-education/#_edn1
  2. On International Day of Persons with Disabilities we Advocate for Inclusive Education — Street Child [Internet]. Street Child. 2019 [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.co.uk/blog/2019/12/4/on-international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities-we-advocate-inclusive-education
  3. Mizunoya S, Mitra S, Yamasaki I. Towards Inclusive Education The impact of disability on school attendance in developing countries, Innocenti Working Paper 2016-03 [Internet]. UNICEF, office of research; 2016. Available from: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/IWP3%20-%20Towards%20Inclusive%20Education.pdf
  1. Weimert F. Discrimination is the biggest obstacle to education for children with disabilities — Street Child Switzerland [Internet]. Street Child Switzerland. 2018 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.ch/news/discrimination-education-children-with-disabilities
  2. Nepal — Street Child [Internet]. Street Child. 2021 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.co.uk/nepal
  3. LEAP from the Street – Learning, Educating And Protecting: Our new education project for street children in Kisumu, Kenya. | Chance for Childhood – Children’s charity [Internet]. Chance for Childhood. 2016 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://chanceforchildhood.org/latest-news/leap-street-learning-educating-protecting-new-education-project-street-children-kisumu-kenya/
  4. Turgut N. The protection and promotion of human rights for street connected children: legal, policy and practical strategies for change [Internet]. Consortium for Street Children; 2017. Available from: https://www.streetchildren.org/wp-content/uploads/gravity_forms/1-07fc61ac163e50acc82d83eee9ebb5c2/2017/04/CSC_Briefing-Paper_March-2017_FINAL-Hi-res_No-crops.pdf

Street Children With Disabilities: Discrimination

two young boys running in muddy clothes, smiling at the camera.

Impacts Of Living with Disability As A Street Child

Ableism – discrimination against disability

The negative treatment of people living with disabilities is known as ableism (1). Sadly, this is experienced by almost all people living with disability at some point in their lives. People living in financial difficulty or poverty experience greater levels of disability-related stigma (2). The level of discrimination can also depend on an individual’s type of impairment (2). For example, children with intellectual disabilities often experience greater levels of exclusion than those with physical disability (2).

Amar, a 17-year old boy from Yemen was interviewed for a study on disability and poverty (3). He is deaf and uses sign language to communicate. He explained that he is made to feel uncomfortable when he uses sign language on the street (3). People often stare at him. This is not uncommon and sadly many other children with disability share his experience (4). It is also common for parents of children with disability to be made to feel like outsiders within their own communities (5). There is evidence that this also contributes to their rejection from jobs (5). This can have a further negative effect on a child’s health, with some feeling like they will only be further mistreated if they try to seek help from healthcare professionals (3).

Education as a street child with disability

The discrimination and judgement experienced by children often adds to the difficulties street children have with school (6). For example, according to Street Child, almost half of the children interviewed felt that discrimination was their main barrier to attending school (7). As children also experience discrimination due to disability, street children with disability can have a very difficult time trying to fit in. They can experience discrimination due to both factors, where already belonging to another disadvantaged group can make a child feel even more marginalised (8).

Tackling discrimination against street children and disability

The discrimination faced by street children urgently needs addressed, as negative attitudes prevent many from seeking help. This prevents many from receiving care when they need it (3).

Although it may be that attending specialised education for street children would result in less isolation, some projects such as ‘LEAP’ feel that it is important to include them in mainstream education. They also work to strengthen the systems which protect street and disabled children (9). This project is run by Chance for Childhood through partners in Western Kenya. They aim to improve education for street children and those living with disability (9).

In addition, organisations including Street Girls Aid are working to improve education, nutrition and the safety of street-connected children (10). In partnership with Chance for Childhood, this has helped many children like Ebo, a boy called from Accra who at 18 months old could no longer walk due to malnutrition. Through support by Street Girls Aid, Ebo and his mother were given the support they needed to improve Ebo’s health, and with time Ebo could not only walk again but he also joins in with singing and dancing with other children in his community (10). This is just one example of the good work improving the health of street children.

Impacts of disability on health, education and discrimination in street children

Overall, it is very likely that living with disability as a street child exacerbates the difficulties experienced by street children. They often suffer from poverty and poorer health, worse education and greater discrimination than non-disabled children and those not living on the street (11; 12; 13). However, organisations have together made some excellent steps towards better inclusion and protection of disabled street children. We hope to have highlighted their significance, while there are also many other interventions doing great work. Overall, the articles in this series aim to raise the awareness of the various disabilities and difficulties experienced by disabled street children. This group is often overlooked and therefore need our continued support (14). If interested in the other articles in this series, or indeed any of our other blog updates.

 


References

  1. Definition of ABLEISM [Internet]. Merriam-webster.com. 2021 [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ableism
  2. UK Department for International Development and other Government departments. Disability stigma in developing countries. K4D helpdesk service, Institute of Development Studies; 2018.
  3. Eid A, Ingstad B. Disability and Poverty: A Global Challenge. Bristol; 2011.
  4. Kuper H, Monteath-van Dok A, Wing K, Danquah L, Evans J, Zuurmond M et al. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2014 [cited 24 August 2021];9(9):e107300. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159292/
  5. Rohwerder, B. (2018) Disability Stigma in Developing Countries. K4D Helpdesk Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
  6. Weimert F. Discrimination is the biggest obstacle to education for children with disabilities — Street Child Switzerland [Internet]. Street Child Switzerland. 2018 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.ch/news/discrimination-education-children-with-disabilities
  7. Weimert F. Discrimination is the biggest obstacle to education for children with disabilities — Street Child Switzerland [Internet]. Street Child Switzerland. 2018 [cited 24 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.ch/news/discrimination-education-children-with-disabilities
  8. Children with disabilities [Internet]. Unicef.org. 2021 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/children-disabilities
  9. LEAP from the Street – Learning, Educating And Protecting: Our new education project for street children in Kisumu, Kenya. | Chance for Childhood – Children’s charity [Internet]. Chance for Childhood. 2016 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://chanceforchildhood.org/latest-news/leap-street-learning-educating-protecting-new-education-project-street-children-kisumu-kenya/
  10. The streets are stealing children’s futures | Chance for Childhood – Children’s charity [Internet]. Chance for Childhood. [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://chanceforchildhood.org/our-work/children-on-the-streets/
  11. Kuper H, Monteath-van Dok A, Wing K, Danquah L, Evans J, Zuurmond M et al. The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2014 [cited 24 August 2021];9(9):e107300. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4159292/
  12. Clark J. Realising street children’s right to education | CSC [Internet]. Consortium for Street Children. 2019 [cited 25 August 2021]. Available from: https://www.streetchildren.org/news-and-updates/realising-street-childrens-right-to-education/#_edn1
  13. Weimert F. Discrimination is the biggest obstacle to education for children with disabilities — Street Child Switzerland [Internet]. Street Child Switzerland. 2018 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.ch/news/discrimination-education-children-with-disabilities
  14. Our work / Toybox [Internet]. Toybox.org.uk. [cited 26 August 2021]. Available from: https://toybox.org.uk/our-work

 

Disability in Street Children: Causes and Impacts

Young boy in poverty in developing region.

Overview

A large number of children living with disabilities are living in developing regions (1). This is very important here at Poverty Child as many of these children are living on the street. This is a large public health concern, as disability in street children can greatly impact children’s physical and mental health.

Street children and poverty

Work at Poverty Child aims to improve the lives and outcomes of children living and working on the street. The term ‘Street Children’ is used to describe either children who live and work on the streets, or those who spend a a lot of time on the street but sleep away from public spaces (2).

Poverty is a main cause of children having to live on the street. Other causes include the death of family members, neglect or violence. Poverty is also a main cause of disability, where the cost of healthcare prevents many people from being able to access vital services (3). Disability can increase the probability of being in poverty, as it prevents many from being able to work. In addition, many children receive poorer education as a result of disability. To clarify, disability and poverty are closely linked, as both impact on the lives of street children. Disability in street children adds an additional hardship. For example, street children living with disabilities are more vulnerable to violence and typically have poorer health (2).

Furthermore, disabled street children are often ignored and they try to remain hidden as a result of the high levels of discrimination they experience (2). Work in Sierra Leone by Street Child has shown that discrimination is one of the biggest factors contributing to poor education for children living with disabilities (4).

In addition, the current Coronavirus pandemic has also had a large impact on street children living with disabilities (5). This has made it harder for them to access food or help. Currently, there is a need to remotely support children with disabilities due to Coronavirus.

Causes of disability in street children

There are a large number of factors which can cause disability in children (1). However, many of these have been tackled in higher income countries. Yet, many preventable diseases are continuing to cause disability in children of low-income settings (1). For example, disability may be caused by infectious diseases, infections by parasites and  diseases not directly spread from person to person (1). In addition, in poor regions and street children especially, factors such as malnutrition, maternal and perinatal disease and social unrest are also common causes (3).

Types of disability

A person with a disability has a long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment (6). Research from Street Child suggests that more street children have intellectual disabilities than physical ones. For example, this may include learning and social impairments. Subsequently, this can affect their education (7).

Figure describing both the social and medical models of disability. The diagram reads that the social model includes the impact of discrimination which can lead to poorer job prospects. In contrast, the medical model more closely describes the lack of physical ability and that the disability is the problem, not that of society.

The Medical and Social Models of Disability (6)

Models of disability

The social model of disability highlights the discrimination a person may face due to their disability (6). This stigma has existed for a long time, and remains an issue around the world. To add further, there is often a view that disability is the ‘fault’ of the person. Instead, society needs to be fully inclusive of people living with disability (8). In comparison, the medical model of disability more directly focuses on changes to the physical or mental abilities of a person (6).

Discrimination in disabled children

Children living with disability experience stigma and discrimination, on top of the difficulties caused by the disability itself (9). Discrimination is described by UNICEF as ‘any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability’ (6). This causes many children to feel isolated and helpless (9).

Discrimination in education

Disability often prevents children from fully taking part in their community. As a result, this causes many to feel like outsiders within their own communities (8). For example, it is common for children with disabilities to be separated in classrooms. Some teachers will refuse to teach children with disabilities alongside other children (8). This continues to make those with disabilities believe there is something wrong with them. Furthermore, it also suggests to able-bodied children that the two groups need to be separated. This results in poorer education for disabled children. Many children begin to feel this stigma towards themselves, which results in them not wanting to seek help or access to health services. This further adds to the struggle of living with disability as a child. Furthermore, they have been left behind in the global attempt to improve education for street children as a whole (10).

Gender-based discrimination

Gender-based discrimination is also experienced by girls living with disabilities. Consequently, they overall receive less education and less career training than boys with disabilities and able-bodied girls of the same age (11). This exclusion is commonly as a result of them being invisible. Therefore, it is important that we work to include disabled girls within and out-with disabled communities (11).

Developments to disability in street children

Many organisations are working to improve the health and lives of children living in low income countries (1). In particular, programmes are working to improve the outcomes of disability in street children. For example, community-based programmes are being used to emphasise the importance of good health care for disabled children. The introduction of such programmes has helped improve childhood access to healthcare in Tanzania. This is a country currently struggling with high rates or childhood disability (1).

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 hope to make education more inclusive and more accessible to all children (10). However, there is a lack of research on the education of disabled children, particularly in those living on the streets (9). This is due to a lack of funding. As a result, this limits the improvements which can be made to the education of disabled street children. One way to solve this is through fundraising campaigns. These campaigns are increasing awareness and therefore support for projects. Subsequently, this increase in funding is helping to meet the needs of every child living with disability.

In addition, there is a mindset that we need to ‘fix’ children living with disabilities. This implies that something is wrong with them. Instead, it is better if we work to remove the stigma the children face. This would result in children being free to succeed no matter their impairment (8). For instance, UNICEF’s ‘Its about ability’ campaign is aimed at changing community perception of disability, which is helping to improve the acceptance and inclusion of disabled children (8).

Coronavirus

Sadly, the global pandemic had a negative impact on much of the progress being made. However, organisations such as Chance For Childhood have done great work to meet the needs of disabled street children through outreach teams during this difficult time. The result: much improved support of street children in Kenya and Ghana (5).

Overall, these programmes can collectively help us to improve disability in street children.

 


References

  1. Cameron D, Nixon S, Parnes P, Pidsadny M. Children with disabilities in low-income countries. Paediatrics & Child Health [Internet]. 2005 [cited 25 April 2021];10(5):269-272. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722543/
  2. org. The Facts about Street Children | Consortium for Street Children [Internet]. Consortium for Street Children. 2019 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://www.streetchildren.org/about-street-children/
  3. Simkiss D, Blackburn C, Mukoro F, Read J, Spencer N. Childhood disability and socio-economic circumstances in low and middle income countries: systematic review. BMC Pediatrics [Internet]. 2011 [cited 25 April 2021];11(1). Available from: https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-11-119
  4. Weimert F. Discrimination is the biggest obstacle to education for children with disabilities — Street Child Switzerland [Internet]. Street Child Switzerland. 2018 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://www.street-child.ch/news/discrimination-education-children-with-disabilities
  5. Chance For Childhood. How we’re supporting vulnerable children during Coronavirus | Chance for Childhood – Children’s charity [Internet]. Chance for Childhood. 2020 [cited 5 May 2021]. Available from: https://chanceforchildhood.org/latest-news/how-were-supporting-vulnerable-children-during-coronavirus/
  6. Desk Review for Developing Measures on Discriminatory Attitudes and Social Norms towards Children with Disabilities in Europe and Central Asia region [Internet]. Dornsfife: UNICEF; 2018. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/media/13391/file
  7. Kamara J. A Study on the Barriers to Education for Children with Disabilities in Sierra Leone [Internet]. Chicago: Street Child; 2018. Available from: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5620ddc4e4b04789570e5fca/t/5b570243aa4a997ca1cf356b/1532428909558/A%2BStudy%2Bon%2Bthe%2B%2BBarriers%2Bto%2BEducation%2Bfor%2BChildren%2Bwith%2BDisabilities%2Bin%2BSierra%2BLeone%2B.pdf
  8. Children with disabilities [Internet]. Unicef.org. 2021 [cited 25 April 2021]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/children-disabilities
  9. Maulik P, Darmstadt G. Childhood Disability in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Overview of Screening, Prevention, Services, Legislation, and Epidemiology. PEDIATRICS [Internet]. 2007 [cited 25 April 2021];120(Supplement):S1-S55. Available from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/120/Supplement_1/S1.full.pdf
  10. The World Bank. Education: Children with disabilities are being left behind, says World Bank/GPE report [Internet]. 2017. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/12/01/children-with-disabilities-are-being-left-behind
  11. The State of the World’s Children 2013 [Internet]. Unicef.org. 2013 [cited 25 April 2021]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/reports/state-worlds-children-2013